Cities in a World Economy
Pine Forge Press, 2012, updated 4th ed. (1st ed. 1994)
From the publisher: The Fourth Edition of Cities in a World Economy
shows how certain characteristics of flows of money, information, and people
have led to the emergence of a new social formation: global cities, new types
of migrations, financial crises, environmental catastrophes, and the
multiplication of communication technologies. These developments give new
meaning to such fixtures of urban sociology as the centrality of place and
the importance of geography in our social world.
Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages
Princeton University Press, 2008 updated 2nd ed. (1st
From the publisher: Where does the nation-state end and
globalization begin? In Territory, Authority, Rights, one of the
world's leading authorities on globalization shows how the national
state made today's global era possible. Saskia Sassen argues that even
while globalization is best understood as "denationalization," it
continues to be shaped, channeled, and enabled by institutions and
networks originally developed with nations in mind, such as the rule of
law and respect for private authority. This process of state making
produced some of the capabilities enabling the global era. The
difference is that these capabilities have become part of new organizing
logics: actors other than nation-states deploy them for new purposes.
Sassen builds her case by examining how three components of any society
in any age--territory, authority, and rights--have changed in themselves
and in their interrelationships across three major historical
"assemblages": the medieval, the national, and the global.
A Sociology of Globalization (Contemporary Society Series)
W.W. Norton, 2006
From the publisher: This groundbreaking study focuses on the importance of place, scale, and
nation to the study of globalization. Sassen identifies two sets of
processes that make up globalization: the first and more commonly
studied set of processes is global institutions, from the World Trade
Organization to the War Crime Tribunals; the second and less frequently
explored set of processes occur at the national and local level,
including state monetary policy, small-scale activism that has an
explicit or implicit global agenda, and local politics. Emphasizing the
interplay between global and local phenomena, Sassen insightfully
examines new forms and conditions such as global cities, transnational
communities, and commodity chains. This unique approach to globalization
offers new interpretive and analytic tools to understand the complexity
of global interdependence.
The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo
Princeton University Press, 2001 updated 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1991)
From the publisher: This classic work chronicles how New York,
London, and Tokyo became command centers for the global economy and in
the process underwent a series of massive and parallel changes. What
distinguishes Sassen's theoretical framework is the emphasis on the
formation of cross-border dynamics through which these cities and the
growing number of other global cities begin to form strategic
transnational networks. All the core data in this new edition have been
updated, while the preface and epilogue discuss the relevant trends in
globalization since the book originally came out in 1991.
Guests and Aliens
New Press, 2000
From the publisher: Guests and Aliens shows the causes of
immigration that historically have resulted in nations' welcoming
incomers as guests of disparaging them as aliens. Sassen describes the
relative normality of the pursuit of work across borders during the
emergence of the European nation-states and explains the economic and
political mass migrations of Italians and Eastern European Jews during
the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. She also discusses the
dislocations - particularly those after the end of World War II - that have
engendered the "refugee" concept. By mapping the long history of global
migration, Sassen shows that the American experience is just one phase
in an extended history of border crossing.
Globalization and its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money
New Press, 1999
From the publisher: In this collection
of essays, Saskia Sassen deals with such current topics as the "global
city," gender and migration, information technology, and the new
dynamics of inequality. She demonstrates how vast the chasm between
metropolitan business centers and low-income inner cities has become,
bringing together cultural and literary studies, feminist theory,
political economics, sociology and political science. Incisive and
original, she takes on common political, cultural and economics
misconceptions of globalization and offers a thoughtful new look at our
increasingly global society.
Losing Control?: Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization
Columbia University Press, 1996
From the publisher: Examining the rise
of private transnational legal codes and supranational institutions such
as the World Trade Organization and universal human rights covenants,
Saskia Sassen argues that sovereignty remains an important feature of
the international system, but that it is no longer confined to the
nation-state. Sassen argues that a profound transformation is taking
place, a partial denationalizing of national territory seen in such
agreements as NAFTA and the European Union.
The Mobility of Capital and Labor: A Study in International Investment and Labor Flow
Cambridge University Press, 1988
From the publisher: In
this empirical study, Saskia Sassen offers a new understanding of the
processes of international migration. Focusing on immigration into the
US from 1960 to 1985 and the part played by American economic activities
abroad, as well as foreign investment in the US, she examines the
various ways in which the internationalization of production contributes
to the formation and direction of labor migration.
Deciphering the Global: Its Scales, Spaces and Subjects
Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group, 2007
From the publisher: Breaking with
prevailing scholarship, Deciphering the Global relocates the
terms of the debate surrounding globalization from the heights of global
markets, states, and international corporations to the messier, more
complex ground of the local, where broad globalizing trends are
negotiated in interesting and often unexpected ways. Each of the essays
in Saskia Sassen's collection introduces a new type of complexity and
ambiguity to the study of the global, confronting questions of space and
the fact that both the local and the global are increasingly
multi-scalar. In turn, the chapters in this book expand the analytic
terrain of the global, demanding new methodologies and interpretive
frames for the study of globalization.
Global Networks, Linked Cities
Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group, 2002
From the publisher: In this new collection of essays, Sassen and a
distinguished group of contributors expand on the author's earlier work
in a number of important ways, focusing on two key issues. First, they
look at how information flows have bound global cities together in
networks, creating a global city web whose constituent cities become
"global" through the networks they participate in. Second, they
investigate emerging global cities in the developing world-Sao Paulo,
Shanghai, Hong Kong, Mexico City, Beirut, the Dubai-Iran corridor, and
Buenos Aires. They show how these globalizing zones are not only
replicating many features of the top tier of global cities, but are also
generating new socio-economic patterns as well. These new patterns of
development promise to lead to significant changes in the structure of
the global economy, as more and more cities worldwide are integrated
into globalization's circuitry.
Digital Formations: IT and New Architectures in the Global Realm (with Robert Lantham)
Princeton University Press, 2005
From the publisher: Computer-centered networks and technologies
are reshaping social relations and constituting new social domains on a
global scale, from virtually borderless electronic markets and
Internet-based large-scale conversations to worldwide open source
software development communities, transnational corporate production
systems, and the global knowledge-arenas associated with NGO networks.
This book explores how such "digital formations" emerge from the
ever-changing intersection of computer-centered technologies and the
broad range of social contexts that underlie much of what happens in
While viewing technologies fundamentally in
social rather than technical terms, Digital Formations
nonetheless emphasizes the importance of recognizing the specific
technical capacities of digital technologies. Importantly, it identifies
digital formations as a new area of study in the social sciences and in
thinking about globalization. The ten chapters, by leading scholars,
examine key social, political, and economic developments associated with
these new configurations of organization, space, and interaction. They
address the operation of digital formations and their implications for
the development of longstanding institutions and for their wider
contexts and fields, and they consider the political, economic, and
other forces shaping those formations and how the formations, in turn,
are shaping such forces.
Selected Articles (2000 - present):
"Visible Formalizations and Formally Invisible Facticities", Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 1, 2013.
"Does the City Have Speech?", Urban Challenges: Essay, 2013.
"The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge
Isn't What It Used to Be", Americas Quarterly, Spring 2013, Reviewed by Saskia Sassen.
"The Incomplete City Strikes Back",
DAMN°39 magazine, October 13, 2013.
"Does a sensored city mean a censored city?", BBC, August 18, 2013.
"Migration is expulsion by another name in world of foreign land deals", the guardian, May 29, 2013.
"Novel Spatial Formats For Urban Inclusion", books & ideas.net, May 3, 2012.
"Drones over there, total surveillance over here", Aljazeera, February 19, 2013.
"Expanding the Terrain for Global Capital, When Local Housing Becomes an Electronic Instrument", Subprime Cities: The Political Economy of Mortgage Markets,
First Edition, 2012.
"Occupying is not the same as demonstrating...", article by Saskia Sassen
"Urbanising technology", The Electric City Newspaper, December, 2012.
"A Focus on Cities Takes Us Beyond Existing Governance Frameworks",
Protection without Protectionism Stiglitz and Kaldor, November 29, 2012.
"Cities instead of states", The European, October 23, 2012.
"A global backdrop", Columbia Spectator, October 9, 2012.
"A Human Rights Court Gives Torture the Green Light", Jeanne Theoharis & Saskia Sassen, The Nation, September 26, 2012.
"The Future of the City : Urban Capabilities: An Essay on Our Challenges and Differences", Journal of International Affairs - Columbia SIPA, Vol. 65, No. 2, Page 85, Spring/Summer 2012.
"Novel Spatial Formats For Urban Inclusion. Megaregions and Global Cities", Books & Ideas, May 3, 2012.
"Minimalistisches Facebook: Das Social-Networking-Portal innerhalb größerer Ökologien", Deutschlandfunk, March 13, 2012
"Faculty to Bloomberg: Tell Your Police Chief to Go", with Jeanne Theoharis, The Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2012
"Inequality? We Need a New Word", The Wall Street Journal, February 10, 2012
"Cities and the Biosphere", Berkshire Publishing, 2012.
"When the center no longer holds: Cities as frontier zones", 2012.
Mori Foundation, Tokyo. Global Cities Power Index
"The Global Street Comes to Wall Street", Possible Futures, November 22, 2011
"The Global Street: Making the Political", Globalizations, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 565-571, November 18, 2011.
"Strategic Geographies - Challenge of Their Visualization", Black Sunrise, October 14, 2011
"The Global Street", The Huffington Post, October 3, 2011
"Why Did Britain's Riot Happen Now?", Newsweek, August 15, 2011
"Els vidres trencats de Cameron", Ara.Cat, August 14, 2011
"On Cameron's Broken Windows", The New York Times, August 10, 2011
"Global Challenges and the City", arena, September 2011
"Open Source Urbanism", Domus, June 29, 2011
"Il mondo salvato dale metropoli del future", la Repubblica, April 4, 2011
"Delegating, not returning, to the biosphere: How to use multi-scalar and ecological properties of cities", March 27, 2011
"Black and White Photography as Theorizing: Seeing What the Eye Cannot See", Sociological Forum, Vol. 26, No. 2, March 18, 2011
"Mégarégions et villes globales", idées.fr, March 2, 2011.
"Die Macht des Digitalen: Ambivalenzen des Internet", Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, February, 2011
"Die Rolle der neuen Technologien", Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, February, 2011
"When the City Itself Becomes a Technology of War", Theory, Culture & Society, 2010
"L'Emergence D'une Nouvelle Geographie Transnationale" Le Monde Hors Serie, 2010
"The Global Inside the National: A Research Agenda for Sociology", Sociopedia.isa, 2010
"The City: Its Return as a Lens for Social Theory", City, Culture and Society, 2010 1:3-10
"A Savage Sorting of Winners and Losers: Contemporary Versions of Primitive Accumulation," Globalizations, 7: 1, 23 - 50
"De ciudadanos a meros sobrantes", Clarín.com, June 16, 2010.
"Cities are at the center of our environmental future," S.A.P.I.EN.S, Vol 2, Issue 3, April 7, 2010.
"Global inter-city networks and commodity chains: any intersections?", Global Networks 10, 1 (2010) 150-63.
"Strategic Gendering as Capability: One Lens into the Complexity of Powerlessness", Strategic Gendering as Capability, 2009.
"The Other Workers in the Advanced Corporate Economy", S&F Online, 2009.
"Incompleteness and the Possibility of Making: Towards Denationalized Citizenship?", Political Power and Social Theory, Volume 20, 229-258, 2009.
"Cities Today: A New Frontier for Major Developments," ANNALS, AAPSS, 626, November 2009.
"Membership and Its Politics: When the outsider expands the formal rights of citizens", Dossier, October 2009.
"Bordering Capabilities Versus Borders: Implications for National Borders", Michigan Journal of International Law June 29, 2009.
"The new executive politics: a democratic challenge", openDemocracy, June 26, 2009.
"Looming Disaster and Endless Opportunity: Our World's Megacities," Megacities No. 2, 2009.
[with Carlo Ratti] "Le megacittà iperconnesse", May 3, 2009.
"Sociologue Globale," Le Monde, March 27 2009.
"Unsettling Master Categories: Notes on Studying the Global in C. W. Mills’ Footsteps",
Springer Science + Business Media, August 13, 2008.
"Analytic Borderlands: Economy and Culture in the Global City", A Companion to the City, Chapter 15, April 15, 2008.
"Actores y espacios laborales de la globalización", Papeles, 2008.
"Mortgage Capital and its Particularities: A New Frontier for Global Finance."
Journal of International Affairs, vol. 62(1): 187-212.
"Two Stops in Today's New Global Geographies: Shaping Novel Labor Supplies and Employment Regimes,"
American Behavioral Scientist, vol.52, no.3: 457-496.
"Challenges Facing Global Cities in the 21st Century," International Herald Tribune
"Re-Assembling the Urban." Urban Geography, vol. 29(2): 113-126.
"Neither Global nor National: Novel Assemblages of Territory, Authority, and Rights," Ethics & Global Politics, vol. 1(1-2).
"Response [to Benhabib]", European Journal of Political Theory, vol.6(4): 431-444.
"Built Complexity and Public Engagements", Making Public Buildings, 2006.
"Europe’s Migrations", Third Text, Vol.20, Issue 6, November 2006.
"Why Cities Matter," in: Cities. Architecture and Society, exhibition catalogue of the 10. Architecture Biennale Venice, Marsilio, Venice 2006, p. 26-51.
"Making Public Interventions in Today's Massive Cities." Static, London Consortium.
"The Repositioning of Citizenship and Alienage: Emergent Subjects and Spaces for Politics." Globalizations, vol. 2(1): 79-94.
"Regulating Immigration in a Global Age: A New Policy Landscape." Parallax, vol.11(1): 35-45.
"When National Territory is Home to the Global: Old Borders to Novel Borderings." New Political Economy, vol. 10(4).
"Digging the penumbra of master categories." British Journal of Sociology, vol. 56(3).
"The Global City: Introducing a Concept." Brown Journal of World Affairs, vol. 11(2): 27-43.
"The Ecology of Global Economic Power: Changing Investment Practices to Promote Environmental Sustainability."
Journal of Foreign Affairs, Spring 2005, Vol. 58(2).
[with Tim May, Beth Perry, Patrick Le Gales, and Mike Savage] "The Future of Urban Sociology."
Sociology: the Journal of the British Sociological Association, Vol.39(2).
"Local Actors in Global Politics." Current Sociology, Vol. 52(4)
"Going Beyond the National State in the USA: The Politics of Minoritized Groups in Global Cities." Diogenes, vol.51(3).
"The new lords of Africa", Peacework pg. 20, September 2003
"The Participation of States and Citizens in Global Governance." Symposium - Globalization and Governance: The
Prospects for Democracy. Indiana Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 10, no. 5, iss.1
"Globalization or Denationalization". Review of International Political Economy 10(1) Feb.: 1-22
"The State and Globalization". Interventions: The International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, vol. 5(2): 241-248.
"The Repositioning of Citizenship", Project Muse, 2003.
"Towards a Sociology of Information Technology". Current Sociology, vol. 50(3): 365-388.
"Locating Cities on Global Circuits". Environment & Urbanization, vol.14(1)
"Governance Hotspots: Challenges We Must Confront in the Post-September 11 World". Theory, Culture & Society, vol.19(4): 233-244.
"The City: Between Topographic Representation and Spatialized Power Projects." Art Journal, vol. 60(2): 12-20.
"Global Cities and Developmentalist States: How to Derail What Could Be an Interesting Debate: A Response to Hill and Kim." Urban Studies, Vol.38(13): 2537-2540.
"Impacts of Information Technologies on Urban Economies and Politics." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol.25(2).
"Digital Networks and the State: Some Governance Questions." Theory, Culture & Society, vol.17(4): 19-33.
"Women's Burden: Counter-Geographies of Globalization and the Feminization of Survival." Journal of International Affairs, vol.53(2), Spring 2000.
"Territory and Territoriality in the Global Economy." International Sociology, vol.15(2): 372-393.
"Regulating Immigration in a Global Age: A New Policy Landscape". The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol.570, July 2000.
"Excavating Power: In Search of Frontier Zones and New Actors". Theory, Culture & Society, vol. 17(1): 163-170.
"New frontiers facing urban sociology at the Millennium". British Journal of Sociology, vol. 51(1):143-159.
"The State and Economic Globalization: Any Implications for International Law" Chicago Journal of International Law, Spring 2000, vol. 1(1).
Selected Book Chapters (2000 - present):
"Urban Capabilities: An Essay on Our Challenges and Differences", Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 65, No. 2, Spring/Summer 2012.
"Borders, Walls, and Crumbling Sovereignty", Political Theory, 2012.
"Interactions of the Technical and the Social, Information, Communication & Society", Information, Communication & Society, vol. 15(4): 455-478.
"Interactions of the Technical and the Social, Digital formations of the powerful and the powerless",
Information, Communication & Society, pp. 1-24, 2012.
"Expanding the Terrain for Global Capital, When Local Housing Becomes an Electronic Instrument", Subprime Cities:
The Political Economy of Mortgage Markets, First Edition, 2012.
"The Specialised Differences of Cities Matter in Today's Global Economy," in
Reforming the City: Responses to the Global Financial Crisis, Sam Whimster
(ed.), Erf at London Metropolitan University: 2009.
"Cities in Today's Global Age: An exploration of the new economic role of cities
and the networks they form in an increasingly global world" in Connecting Cities:
Networks (A Research Publication of the 9th World Congress of Metropolis), Metropolis Congress: 2008.
"Global Cities and Survival Circuits", in Globalization: The Transformation of Social Worlds
(2nd Ed.), eds. D. Stanley Eitzen and Maxine
Baca Zinn. Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing. 2008 (1st ed. 2005).
"Electronic networks, power and democracy" pp.339-361 in The Oxford Handbook of Information and Communications
Technologies Robin Mansell, Chrisanthi Avgerou, Danny Quah and Roger Silverstone (eds.), Oxford University Press: 2007.
"L'émergence d'une multiplication d'assemblages de territoire, d'autorités et de droits" in Les Sciences sociales en
mutation Michel Wieviorka (ed.). Paris: Auxerre, Editions Sciences Humaines: 2007.
"Urban Sociology in the 21st Century," pp. 476-486 in 21st Century Sociology: A Reference
Handbook, Clifton D. Bryant and Dennis L. Peck (eds.), Sage: 2006.
"Cities in a World Economy." In The Globalization and Development Reader:
Perspectives on Development and Global Change, eds. J. Timmons Roberts and Amy Bellone Hite. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2006.
"Built Complexity and Public Engagements." In David Adjaye: Making Public Buildings:
Specificity, Customization, Imbrication, Peter Allison (ed.).London: Thames & Hudson. 2006.
"Commentary". In Dialogues on Migration Policy, eds. Marco Giugni and Florence Passy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 2006.
"Scale and Span in a Global Digital World." In Architecture and Design in Europe and America, 1750-2000,
eds. Abigail Harrison-Moore and Dorothy Rowe. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2006.
"Scale and Span in a Global Digital World." In Architecture and Design in Europe and America, 1750-2000,
eds. Abigail Harrison-Moore and Dorothy Rowe. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2006.
"A Global City", in A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics, eds. David Nugent and Joan Vincent. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2006.
"The Embeddedness of Electronic Markets: The case of global capital markets". In The Sociology of Financial Markets,
eds. Karin Knorr Cetina and Alex Preda. New York: Oxford University Press. 2006.
"Theoretical and Empirical Elements in the Study of Globalization." In Inclusion and Exclusion in the Global Arena, ed. Max Kirsch. New York: Routledge. 2006.
"The City: Its Return as a Lens for Social Theory", pp. 457-470 in
The Sage Handbook of Sociology Craig Calhoun, Chris Rojek and Bryan Turner (eds.), Sage: 2005.
"The Global City: Strategic Site, New Frontier", in Managing Urban Frontiers: Sustainability and Urban
Growth in Developing Countries, eds. Marco Kainer, Martina Koll-Schretzenmayr, and Willy A. Schmind. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. 2005.
"Reading the City in a Global Digital Age," in Future City, eds. Stephen Read, Jürgen Rosemann and Job van Eldijk. London: Spon Press. 2005
"Electronic Markets and Activist Networks: The Weight of Social Logics in Digital Formations." 2004. Digital Formations: New Architectures for Global Order. Eds. Robert Lantham and Saskia Sassen. Princeton University Press.
"The City: Localizations of the Global", in Perspecta 36: "Juxtapositions": The Yale School of Architecture Journal, eds. Macky McCleary and Jennifer Silbert. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. February 2004.
"Globalization After September 11" in The Anthropology of Development and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism, eds. Marc Edelman and Angelique Haugerud. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2004.
"Beyond Sovereignty: de facto transnationalism in immigration policy", in Worlds on the Move: Globalisation, Migration and Cultural Security, eds. Jonathan Friedman and Shalini Randeria. London: I.B. Tauris Publishers. 2004.
"De-nationalized state agendas and privatized norm-making", in Public Governance in the Age of Globalization, ed. Karl-Heinz Ladeur. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. 2004
"The formation of intercity geographies of centrality", in Shanghai: Architecture & Urbanism for Modern China, eds. Peter G. Rowe and Seng Kuan. Munich: Prestel. 2004.
"Global Cities and Survival Circuits", in Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy,
eds. Barabara Ehrenreich and Russell Hochschild. New York: Holt Paperbacks. 2004.
"A Global City", in Global Chicago, ed. Charles Madigan. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. 2004.
"The locational and institutional embeddedness of electronic markets: the case of the global capital markets", in Markets in Historical Context: Ideas and Politics in the Modern World, eds. Mark Bevir and Frank Trentmann. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2004.
"Sited Materials with a Global Span", in Society Online: The Internet in Context, eds. Philip N. Howard and Steve Jones. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2004.
"Towards post-national and denationalized citizenship", in Handbook of Citizenship Studies, eds. Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner. New York: Sage. 2003.
"Reading the City in a Global Digital Age: Between Topographic Representation and Spatialized Power Projects", in Global Cities: Cinema, Architecture, and Urbanism in a Digital Age, eds. Linda Krause and Patrice Petro. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 2003.
"Strategic Instantiations of Gendering in the Global Economy", in Gender and U.S. Immigration: Contemporary Trends, ed. Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 2003.
"Global Cities and Diasporic Networks: Microsites in Global Civil Society". Global Civil Society 2002. Edited by Helmut Anheier et. al. Oxford University Press.
"Deconstructing Labor Demand in Today's Advanced Economies: Implications for Low-Wage Employment", in Laboring Below the Line: Ethnography of Poverty, Low-Wage Work, and Survival in the Global Economy, ed. Frank Munger. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 2002.
"Counter-geographies of globalization: Feminisation of survival", in Feminist Post-Development Thought: Rethinking Modernity, Post-Colonialism and Representation, ed. Kriemild Saunders. London: Zed Books. 2002.
"Globalization and the formation of claims", in Globalization at the Margins, eds. Richard Grant and John R. Short. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002.
"Governance Hotspots: Challenges we must confront in the post-September 11 world", in Understanding September 11, ed. Craig Calhoun. New York: New Press. 2002.
"Mediating Practices: Women with/in Cyberspace", in Living with Cyberspace: Technology and Society in
the 21st Century, eds. John Armitage and Joanne Roberts. New York: Continuum. 2002.
"A New Cross-Border Field for Public and Private Actors", in Political Space: Frontiers of Change and
Governance in a Globalizing World. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. 2002.
"Cities in the Global Economy", in Handbook of Urban Studies, ed. Ronan Paddison. New York: Sage. 2001.
"The Demise of Pax Americana and the emergence of informalization as a systematic trend", in Informalization:
Process and Structure, eds. Faruk Tabak and Michaeline A. Crichlow. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2000.